May 102013


  • Carvacrol: also found in thyme, pepperwort & wild bergamot.  Carvacol inhibits bacterial strains including e. coli and bacillus cereus. It is low in toxicity and is used as a food additive to prevent bacteria from growing.
  • Thymol
  • Cymene
  • Caryophyllene
  • Pinene
  • Bisabolene
  • Linalool
  • Borneol
  • Geranyl Acetate
  • Linalyl Acetate
  • Terpinen
May 062013

There are 3 things that grow referred to as “Bergamot”

  1. Several herbs of the mint tea family can be called bergamot. A variety from North America, sometimes called Oswega Tea, was used during the boycott of English tea during the American Revolution.
  2. A pear called “Bergamot Pear
  3. The Bergamot Orange, or Citrus Bergamia, is a southern Italian pear shaped citrus fruit. This is the plant used to create Bergamot Essential Oil. The tree is named after the town of Bergamo in Italy.

The Bergamot Orange is the source of Bergamot Essential Oil. Not only does bergamot oil smell wonderfully uplifiting and citrusy, it has beneficial gifts to offer.

The active ingredients in bergamot juice are:

neoeriocitrin : a flavonoid. According to  “The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. Resulting from experimental evidence that they may modify allergens, viruses, and carcinogens, flavonoids have potential to be biological “response modifiers”, such as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities shown from in vitro studies.

naringin: It is a major flavonoid in grapefruit and gives the grapefruit juice its bitter taste.

neohesperidin: Considered an anti-oxidant agent.

ponceritin: May treat treats allergies and autoimmune responses.



*Melitidin and brutieridin, only recently discovered, exist only in citrus bergamot, and exhibit statin-like properties. (According to Wikipedia, Statins are a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver. Increased cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular diseases,[1] and statins are therefore used in the prevention of these diseases.)

Synephrine is not present in citrus bergamot.

“Tea. Earl Grey. Hot.”

Mar 282013

Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.

Chaudhari LK, Jawale BA, Sharma S, Sharma H, Kumar CD, Kulkarni PA.


Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, ACPM Dental College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India.



Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials.


To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material.


Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Results: Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity.


Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans.


The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.


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